Contributions by Surhid Gautam and Lit-Mian Chan. This book presents a state-of-the art review of vehicle emission standards and regulations and provides a synthesis of worldwide experience with vehicle emission control technologies and their applications in both industrial and developing countries. Topics covered include: * The two principal international systems of vehicle emission standards: those of North America and Europe * Test procedures used to verify compliance with emissions standards and to estimate actual emissions * Engine and aftertreatment technologies that have been developed to enable new vehicles to comply with emission standards, as well as the cost and other impacts of these technologies * An evaluation of measures for controlling emissions from in-use vehicles * The role of fuels in reducing vehicle emissions, the benefits that could be gained by reformulating conventional gasoline and diesel fuels, the potential benefits of alternative cleaner fuels, and the prospects for using hydrogen and electric power to run motor vehicles with ultra-low or zero emissions. This book is the first in a series of publications on vehicle-related pollution and control measures prepared by the World Bank in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme to underpin the Bank's overall objective of promoting transport that is environmentally sustainable and least damaging to human health and welfare.Maintenance costs with methanol-fueled engines could be higher compared to gasoline-fueled engines. ... M85 in earlier (pre-1990) prototype Source: CARS 1994 flexible fuel and variable fuel vehicles (VFW) reduced CO emissions Fuel Options For Controlling Emissions 203 ... Taurus 0.170 0.11 2.3 Chrysler/Dodge Spirit 0.130 0.1 2.1 M85 Ford Taurus 0.091 0.1 1.4 Chrysler/Dodge Spirit 0.040 0.3 1.1anbsp;...
|Title||:||Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles|
|Author||:||Asif Faiz, Christopher S. Weaver, Michael P. Walsh|
|Publisher||:||World Bank Publications - 1996-01-01|