The aYeara That Changed How We View the North This book is about a new theoretical approach that transformed the field of Arctic social studies and about a program called International Polar Year 2007a2008 (IPY) that altered the position of social research within the broader polar science. The concept for IPY was developed in 2003a2005; its vision was for researchers from many nations to work together to gain cro- disciplinary insight into planetary processes, to explore and increase our understanding of the polar regions, the Arctic and Antarctica, and of their roles in the global system. IPY 2007a2008, the fourth program of its kind, followed in the footsteps of its predecessors, the first IPY in 1882a1883, the second IPY in 1932a1933, and the third IPY (later renamed to aInternational Geophysical Yeara or IGY) in 1957a1958. All earlier IPY/IGY have been primarily geophysical initiatives, with their focus on meteorology, atmospheric and geomagnetic observations, and with additional emphasis on glaciology and sea ice circulation. As such, they excluded socio-economic disciplines and polar indigenous people, often deliberately, except for limited ethnographic and natural history collection work conducted by some expeditions of the first IPY. That once dominant vision biased heavily towards geophysics, oceanography, and ice-sheets, left little if any place for people, that is, the social sciences and the humanities, in what has been commonly viewed as the ahard-corea polar research.Icing-over events in 1990s and in 2005a2006, happened in Malozemelskaia tundra, and are described by Nelmin ... Island in winter the conditions of the sea ice are closely connected to the schedule of annual reindeer herd migration. ... The hot summer of 2004, for example, is recorded as it brought disturbances for herders. ... The herders may emphasise the rapidity of shrubs growth noticing that a#39;it became taller after my return from 2 years military servicea#39; (personal communication).
|Title||:||Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions|
|Author||:||Grete K. Hovelsrud, Barry Smit|
|Publisher||:||Springer Science & Business Media - 2010-09-08|