Comparative Genomics in Two Dicot Model Systems

Comparative Genomics in Two Dicot Model Systems

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Comparative sequence analyses were performed with members of the Solanaceae and the Brassicaceae. These studies investigated genomic organization, determined levels of microcolinearity, identified orthologous genes and investigated the molecular basis of trait differences. The first analysis was performed by comparison of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ) genomic sequence (119 kb) containing the JOINTLESS1 (J1) locus with orthologous sequences from two potato species, a diploid, Solanum bulbocastanum (800-900 Mb, 2N=2X=24), and a hexaploid, Solanum demissum (2, 700 Mb, 2N=6X=72). Gene colinearity was well maintained across all three regions. Twelve orthologous open reading frames were identified in identical order and orientation and included three putative J1 orthologs with 93-96% amino acid sequence identity in both potato species. Although these regions were highly conserved, several local disruptions were detected and included small-scale expansion/contraction regions with intergenic sequences, non-colinear genes and transposable elements. Three putative Solanaceous-specific genes were also identified in this analysis. The second analysis was performed by comparison of a Thellungiella halophila (T. halophila) genomic sequence (193 kb) containing the SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1) locus with the orthologous sequence (146 kb) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). T. halophila is a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis thaliana that exhibits extreme salt tolerance. Twenty-five genes, including the putative T. halophila SOS1 (ThSOS1), showed a high degree of colinearity with Arabidopsis genes in the corresponding region. Although the two sequences were significantly colinear, several local rearrangements were detected which were caused by tandem duplications and inversions. Three major expansion/contraction regions in T. halophila contained five LTR retrotransposons which contributed to genomic size variation in this region. ThSOS1 shares similar gene structure and sequence with Arabidopsis SOS1 (AtSOS1 ), including 11 transmembrane domains and a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. Three Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were detected within a 540 bp region upstream of the putative translational start site in ThSOS1 . The (CTT)n repeat is present in different copy numbers in ThSOS1 (18 repeats) and AtSOS1 (3 repeats). When present in the 5' UTRs of some Arabidopsis genes, (CTT)n serves as a putative salicylic acid responsive element. These SSRs may serve as cis-acting elements affecting differential mRNA accumulation of SOS1 in the two species.For example, tomato plants bear edible fleshy fruits that are used for human consumption while potato plants produce ... 2) S. demissum is an allohexaploid and can serve as model for future analyses of homoelogous regions, 3) the inclusionanbsp;...

Title:Comparative Genomics in Two Dicot Model Systems
Author:Gyoungju Nah Park
Publisher:ProQuest - 2008


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