Although critical thinking is described as an essential skill in nursing, not all new registered nurses meet these expectations. A primary responsibility for instructional designers is to provide instruction that creates optimal learning situations. One approach is to have the student use critical thinking skills to solve a problem by providing conditions of instruction to trigger higher order thinking. Pedagogical agents provide a possible affordance for facilitating critical thinking by asking questions and engaging the learner. This mixed method experimental study addressed the effectiveness of a web-based pedagogical agent in facilitating critical thinking in students in the final semester of their associate degree nursing program. The treatment group participated in a series of three nursing case studies with a pedagogical agent while the control group completed the series without the pedagogical agent. The results of the ANCOVA demonstrated no significance difference between the groups on the Critical Thinking Process Test. The pre-think-aloud and post-think-aloud were coded and analyzed by faculty using a rating tool and rubric for the presence of eight cognitive processes, level of critical thinking, and for accuracy of nursing diagnosis, conclusions, and evaluation. No significant difference appeared on the chi-square analysis between pre-think-aloud and post-think-aloud for the attainment of advanced beginner/competent level, appropriate diagnosis, correct conclusion, or appropriate evaluations by group. However, 79% of the treatment group improved on their level of critical thinking compared to 57% of the control group. 67% of the treatment group improved on the accuracy of their conclusions and evaluation compared to 33.3% of the control group. A chi-square analysis for each group revealed a significant difference for improvement of the critical thinking level and correct conclusions from pre-think-aloud to post-think-aloud. In contrast, a significant difference in the chi-square analysis was found only in the treatment group when examining the improvement of appropriate evaluations from pre-think-aloud to post-think-aloud. Although this study provided mixed results, there appears to be some support for the use of a pedagogical agent to facilitate critical thinking in nursing.Causal interaction map with possible variables. Adapted from aInstructional Design Models for Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Learning Outcomes, a by D. H. Jonassen, 1997, ... ED315423); and aSupplement to the Test /manual Entitled the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, a by R. H. Ennis, 2005.
|Title||:||Effectiveness of Web-based Animated Pedagogical Agents: Facilitating Critical Thinking of Nursing Students|
|Author||:||Diane J. Morey|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2008|