In Elusive Equality, Jeffrey L. Littlejohn and Charles H. Ford place Norfolk, Virginia, at the center of the South's school desegregation debates, tracing the crucial role that Norfolkas African Americans played in efforts to equalize and integrate the cityas schools. The authors relate how local activists participated in the historic teacher-pay-parity cases of the 1930s and 1940s, how they fought against the school closures and qMassive Resistanceq of the 1950s, and how they challenged continuing patterns of discrimination by insisting on crosstown busing in the 1970s and 1980s. Despite the advances made by local activists, however, Littlejohn and Ford argue that the vaunted qurban advantageq supposedly now enjoyed by Norfolkas public schools is not easy to reconcile with the cityas continuing gaps and disparities in relation to race and class. In analyzing the history of struggles over school integration in Norfolk, the authors scrutinize the stories told by participants, including premature declarations of victory that laud particular achievements while ignoring the larger context in which they take place. Their research confirms that Norfolk was a harbinger of national trends in educational policy and civil rights. Drawing on recently released archival materials, oral interviews, and the rich newspaper coverage in the Journal and Guide, Virginian-Pilot, and Ledger-Dispatch, Littlejohn and Ford present a comprehensive, multidimensional, and unsentimental analysis of the century-long effort to gain educational equality. A historical study with contemporary implications, their book offers a balanced view based on a thorough, sober look at where Norfolkas school district has been and where it is going.Library, University of Virginia, Charlottesville NCRB Norfolk City Record Book, Sargeant Room, Norfolk Public Library, Norfolk, Virginia NJG Journal and Guide, Norfolk, Virginia NNJG New Journal and Guide, Norfolk, Virginia NPSDP Norfolk Public ... Norfolk, Virginia NSBM Norfolk School Board Minutes, Sargeant Room, Norfolk Public Library, Norfolk, Virginia SSN Southern School News Introduction 1.
|Author||:||Jeffrey L. Littlejohn, Charles Howard Ford|
|Publisher||:||University of Virginia Press - 2012|