The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), has become a contaminant pest in wine grapes. Feeding behavior, phenology, and management options of H. axyridis in wine grapes were studied. Concentrations of potential compounds (3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazines) responsible for the H. axyridis-related taint among wine made with grapes at increasing infestation levels of H. axyridis did not differ statistically. Harmonia axyridis feeds on wine grapes at the end of the fall to increase the chances of survival over the winter since feeding on grape berries, sugar, or water decreased the mortality rate when compared to no feeding at all. The phenologies of wine grapes and H. axyridis in vineyards determined the management window between veraison and harvest when the grape berries are at their most susceptible stage, and the abundance of H. axyridis in the vineyards is the highest. Field data analysis on insect-plant interactions suggested that seasonal changes in sugar content, proportions of H. axyridis on yellow sticky cards and in wine grape clusters, and the level of injured grape berries have practical effects on the management of H. axyridis. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for pest management applications were developed for H. axyridis in wine grapes. The enumerative plan resulted in a mean average sample number (ASN) of 180 clusters. In contrast, the binomial plans resulted in a mean ASN of only 19 to 26 clusters for a tally threshold of 1 adult per cluster. In a series of three-alternative forced choice (3-AFC) tests, a tasting panel compared control wine prepared with H. axyridis-free grapes and wine produced with increasing beetle levels. The estimated sensory-based action threshold at which 10% of people could detect the off-flavor of H. axyridis was 1.9 beetles per kg of grapes, or 0.27 beetles per cluster of Frontenac grapes. To better understand and manage H. axyridis in wine grapes, several questions still need to be answered. For example, the biological and ecological forces driving H. axyridis aggregation behavior in the fall, and the evolutionary aspects of the changes on the feeding habit of H. axyridis from carnivory to phytophagy are still unknown.Beyond the annoyance caused by the shear numbers of beetles on and inside of homes, infestations cause problems in houses by staining ... the presence of the beetles in homes have been described in several cases studies (Yarbrough et al. , 1999, Ray and Pence, 2004, Goetz, 2007). For example, in West Virginia, 42% of homes were infested with H. axyridis adults causing lady beetle hypersensitivityanbsp;...
|Title||:||Feeding Behavior, Phenology, and Management of the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia Axyridis, in Wine Grapes|
|Author||:||Tederson L. Galvan|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2008|