This study used data collected for the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) randomized control field trial to examine the effect of the ISI intervention on the rate with which children were retained (i.e., not promoted to second grade) compared to a business as usual control. I next examined the effect of the second year of first grade on students' word reading, reading comprehension, and vocabulary skill gains. Finally, I examined how their achievement after one and two years of first grade compared to a group of children matched for fall word reading, gender, and school but who were promoted. In the ISI treatment condition, teachers implemented algorithm-guided recommendations for reading instruction from the Assessment to Instruction (A2i) web-based software, which provided an individualized plan for each child on the basis of his or her reading and vocabulary skills. The A2i software provided teachers with assessment information in the form of age equivalents, grade equivalents and progress monitoring graphs comparing target growth with observed growth based on periodic assessments of students' reading and language skills, and aided teachers in implementing optimal patterns of instruction. Teachers were provided with bi-weekly professional development in order to learn how to individualize student instruction in the classroom based on the A2i recommendations. It was hypothesized that ISI combined with A2i would result in fewer students being retained and/or retained students with higher achievement. Findings revealed that it was significantly less likely for a student to be retained at the end of first grade if his or her teacher was implementing ISI combined with A2i in the classroom than if the child was in a control classroom. Although children who were retained achieved significantly weaker skills at the end of their first year in first grade, compared to children who were promoted, they were generally able to achieve grade level expectations after spending an additional year in first grade, when all teachers in the study implemented ISI combined with A2i.Reading comprehension was assessed using the WJ Passage Comprehension subtest, which requires students to complete a cloze procedure; students are asked to read a short passage and must provide the missing word. ... A student who is performing at or above grade level expectations at the end of first grade would be achieving grade equivalents of 1.9 (1st grade and 9 months) to 2.0 (2nd gradeanbsp;...
|Title||:||Grade Retention and Classroom Instruction|
|Author||:||Jennifer Marie Lucas|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2008|