This book describes how to predict and forecast the state of planet Earthas ionosphere under quiet and disturbed conditions in terms of dynamical processes in the weakly ionized plasma media of the upper atmosphere and their relation to available modern measurements and modelling techniques. It explains the close relationship between the state of the media and the radio wave propagation conditions via this media. The prediction and forecasting algorithms, methods and models are oriented towards providing a practical approach to ionospherically dependent systems design and engineering. Proper understanding of the ionosphere is of fundamental practical importance because it is an essential part of telecommunication and navigation systems that use the ionosphere to function or would function much better in its nonappearance on the Earth and on any planet with an atmosphere.The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a complex model that describes for a given coordinate, time, and date not only the electron density in the range from roughly 50a2, 000 km, but also the ion composition together with the electron anbsp;...
|Title||:||Ionospheric Prediction and Forecasting|
|Author||:||Bruno Zolesi, Ljiljana R. Cander|
|Publisher||:||Springer Science & Business Media - 2013-09-25|