Tozer (1973) suggested that aquot;mantle plumeaquot; was simply jargon for a long- recognized geological fact, that igneous or hydro- ... Upwelling plumes always occur as part of the main convecting system (rather than independently). ... In addition, the top part of the boundary layer (the lithosphere) does not behave as a fluid.
|Title||:||Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms|
|Author||:||Gillian R. Foulger|
|Publisher||:||Geological Society of America - 2005-01-01|