Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: Global competition, emerging technologies, and an ever increasing need for superior products in shorter time frames all contribute to drive companies to adopt new and innovative approaches to product innovation. Effective product innovation is imperative for the survival, growth and profitability of most design and manufacturing enterprises. In the current dynamic manufacturing environment, companies must innovate successfully if they wish to remain competitive. Product innovation is a complex, cross-functional and contingent, dynamic process, which is difficult to manage. Anticipating change and expeditiously responding to the dynamics of the business environment via product innovation are important precursors for achieving sustainable competitive positions and exceptional performance. The heart of a product innovation is its value. Traditional discounted cash flow approaches, such as net present value (NPV), have traditionally been the preferred methods for evaluating investments in product innovation. The traditional NPV method, which was initially developed to value bonds or stocks by passive investors, implicitly assumes that corporations hold a collection of real assets passively. Managerial choices (as delay, expand, switching etc.) are thus presumed to be limited to the initial decision. Therefore, traditional valuation methods undervalue the product innovation because they are unable to capture the value of management flexibility. Recently, real options emerged as an alternative to simplistic discounted cash flow methods. Real option valuation (ROV) values the managerial flexibility to make ongoing decisions regarding implementation of investment projects and deployment of real assets. ROV extends valuation models used to price financial options and applies them to investments in real assets. Black and Scholes developed the Black-Scholes model to value financial options that focus on factors affecting the value of the underlying financial asset over time. Proof by Cox, Ross, Rubinstein (1979), binomial tree model is simpler to understand for the practitioner and less elegant than Black-Scholes model. It uses the discrete mathematics to achieve the isomorphic results to the calculation used by Black-Scholes model. From an intuition point of view, the managerial flexibility is easy to understand. But, how much it is worth is most difficult or even impossible to think about and measure with the traditional valuation methods. In this paper, we will use some concrete examples to illustrate the powerful ability to quantify the managerial flexibility and strategic interactions using real option valuation. The four-step process to evaluate the real options, explained by Tom Copeland in his book Real Options , makes the application of real option valuation more practical and traceable. In this paper, we set a fictive example with an illustration of BlackBerry 9900 to systematically clarify the framework and the process of real options method Real option valuation is theoretically the most advanced tool for the valuation of uncertainty and managerial flexibility. But the difficulties in estimating the input data, mathematical calculation, and understanding this concept by client limit the applicability of real option valuation. To develop generic options based users friendly software package to reduce the mathematical difficulty, to analyze more actual case applications would be the possible implementation in the future. Inhaltsverzeichnis:Table of Contents: Abstract5 1.Introduction7 1.1The Problem: Valuing Product Innovation7 1.2Goals of the Thesis9 1.3Methodology10 2.Basic Concepts of Valuing Product Innovation13 2.1Definition and Character of Product Innovation13 2.2Definition of Product Innovation13 2.3Character of Product Innovation15 2.4Product Innovation is a Complex Process15 2.4.1Product Innovation is a Cross-functional and Contingent Process17 2.4.2Product Innovation is a Risky Process18 2.5Main Challenges in Valuing Product Innovation 19 2.5.1Selection of the Adequate Methodology21 2.5.2Net Present Value21 2.5.3Other Traditional Approaches23 3.Introduction of Real Option Valuation26 3.1Definition of an Option26 3.2Difference between Real Options and Financial Options28 3.3Value Drivers of Real Options30 3.3.2Value Drivers Relating to the Underlying Asset and Financial Market30 3.3.3Managerial Flexibility32 3.3.4Uncertainty34 3.4Typology of Real Options36 3.4.1The Option to Delay and the Valuing38 3.4.2The Option to Expand and the Valuing40 3.4.3The Option to Contract and the Valuing41 3.4.4The Option to Abandon and the Valuing43 3.4.5The Option to Switch and the Valuing45 3.4.6Compound Options and the Valuing47 3.5Methodology of Real Option Valuation50 3.5.1Black-Scholes Model51 3.5.2Binomial Tree Model52 3.5.3Selection of the Adequate Methodology56 4.Applying Real Option Valuation to the Illustration with BlackBerry 990059 4.4.Introduction of the Product Innovation with BlackBerry 990059 4.5Valuing Process of the Chosen Example60 4.5.1First Step: Valuing without Flexibility 3a4 Traditional DCF Method6164 4.5.2Second Step: Model the Uncertainty 3a4 Using Event Tree64 4.5.3Third Step: Identity and Incorporate Managerial Flexibility - Creating a Decision Tree67 4.5.4Fourth Step: Conduct Real Options Analysis70 5.Conclusion74 5.4Thesis Summary74 5.5Limitation of Real Option Valuation75 5.6Possible Complementation of Real Option Valuation77 5.6.1Combining ROV and DCF77 5.6.2Other Possible Complementation79 6.Appendix81 6.4.References81 6.5.Website82 6.6Table of Figures82 Textprobe:Text Sample: Chapter 3, Introduction of Real Option Valuation: The Definition of an option: Option is a definition in capital budgeting. An option provides the buyer (holder) the right (but not the obligation) to exercise by buying or selling an asset at a set price (called an exercise price or a strike price) on (European style option) or before (American style option) a future date (the expiration date). An option is often classified as call option and put option. Exercise price is the amount of money invested to exercise the option if you are buying the asset with a call option, or the amount of money received if you are selling it with a put option. Underlying asset for a financial option is a security such as a share of common stock or a bond. For example, in a stock option to buy 100 shares of BlackBerry at EUR 140 at the end of year 2007, the BlackBerry share is the underlying asset. In a futures contract to buy EUR 10 million 10 year German Government Bonds, the underlying assets are the German Government bonds. Underlying risk is that you may lose the money you invested your capital. It is a measure of the variance of possible outcomes. A risk is related to the expected losses which can be caused by a risky event and to the probability of this event. A financial risk is often presented as the unexpected variability or volatility of returns, and thus includes both potential worse than expected as well as better than expected returns. A Call option gives the buyer the right to buy the underlying asset at an exercise price, at any time prior to the expiration date. At expiration date, the option is not exercised and expires worthless if the value of the underlying asset is less than the exercise price. If the value of the asset is greater than the exercise price, the option is exercised the buyer of the option buys the stock at the exercise price. Figure 3.1 illustrates the cash payoff on a call option at expiration. The net payoff is negative (and equal to the price paid for the call) if the price of the underlying asset is less than the exercise price. If the price of the underlying asset exceeds the exercise price, the difference between the price of the underlying asset and the exercise price comprises the gross profit on the investment. The net profit on the investment is the difference between the gross profit and the price paid for the call initially. A put option gives the buyer the right to sell the underlying asset at exercise price, at any time prior to the expiration date of the option. At expiration date, if the price of the underlying asset is greater than the exercise price, the option will not be exercised and will expire worthless. If the price of the underlying asset is less than the exercise price, the buyer will exercise the option and sell the stock at the exercise price. As shown in figure 3.2, a put option has a negative net payoff if the price of the underlying asset exceeds the exercise price. If the value of the underlying asset is less than the exercise price, a gross payoff equals to the difference between the exercise price and the price of the underlying asset. The net payoff is the gross payoff minus the price paid for put option initially.Difference between Real Options and Financial Options: Both of real options and financial options are the right but not the obligation, to take an action. A real option is the right, but not the obligation, to undertake some business decision, at a predetermined cost called exercise price, for a predetermined period of time the life of the option. These are called real options because they pertain to physical or tangible assets, such as equipment, rather than financial instruments. It is a choice that an investor has when investing in the real economy (i.e. in the production innovation of goods or services, rather than in financial contracts). In contrast to financial options, a real option is not tradable - e.g. the factory owner cannot sell the right to extend his factory to another party, only he can make this decision. It is not a derivative instrument, but an actual tangible option in the sense of choice that a business may gain by undertaking certain endeavors. For example, by investing in a project or property, a company may have the real option of expanding, deferring, or abandoning other projects in the future. Other examples of real options may be opportunities for research and development, mergers and acquisitions, etc. The underlying asset for a real option is a tangible asset, for example, a business unit or a project while the underlying asset for a financial option is a security such as a share of common stock or a bond. The value of underlying asset: Financial options are written on traded securities. It makes much easier to estimate the parameters of financial options. The security price is usually observable, and we can estimate the variance of its rate of return either from historical data or by calculating the forward-looking implied variance from other options on the same security. With real options, the underlying risky asset is usually not a traded asset. It is difficult to estimate the value of underlying asset from market.Copeland and Antikarov proposed the marketed asset disclaimer assumption (MAD). Combining the ration of a twin security and the Mason and Merton assumption, the MAD states that the real asset value is perfectly correlated with itself and is the best unbiased estimate of the market value of the real asset were it traded. Therefore, the real asset value should be used as the underlying security. The possibility of enhancing the value of the underlying asset is another important difference between financial and real options. Most financial options are side bets. The company on whose shares they are contingent does not issue the financial options. The independent agents who write them and buy those that are written issue them. Consequently, the agent that issues a call option has no influence over the actions of the company and no control over the company s share price. Real options are different. Management controls the underlying assets on which they are invested and implements their decisions with time series. For example, a company plans to start a new product innovation project. Management may have the right to abandon it and may choose to do so if its present value is low. However, if the company comes up with a new idea that raises the present value of the underlying project (without flexibility), the value of the right to abandon may fall, and the company may decide not to abandon. Usually, the act of enhancing the value of the underlying real asset also enhances the value of the valuation. The possibility of changing the risk by management: With both financial and real options, risk - the uncertainty of the underlying - is assumed to be exogenous. This is a reasonable assumption for financial options. The uncertainty about the rate of return on a share of stock is, in fact, beyond the control or influence of individuals who trade options on the stock. The actions of a company that owns a real option may affect the actions of competitors, and consequently the nature of uncertainty that the company facesThese are called real options because they pertain to physical or tangible assets, such as equipment, rather than financial instruments.
|Title||:||Real Option Valuation of Product Innovation|
|Publisher||:||diplom.de - 2009-01-11|