All streams in the study had a normalized discharge decline across subsided longwall panels. This characteristic is caused by in increase in fractures throughout the panel increasing underflow rates and bank storage potential.TC measurements are conducted using the Geonics EM-31 instrument operating at 9.8 kHz (Figure 17). ... This unit has a 12 feet (3.6 m) inter-coil spacing, the length used to measure the depth of penetration, and a radius of investigation ... The EM-31 has a transmitter at one end of the instrument that induces circular eddy current loops in the earth. ... (Geonics EM-31 Manual, 1975; Figure 18) Figure 18.
|Title||:||Stream Flow Characterization Over Longwall Coal Mines in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia|
|Author||:||Scott A. Wade|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2008|