This book is the comprehensive volume of the TAIGA (aa great river a in Japanese) project. Supported by the Japanese government, the project examined the hypothesis that the subseafloor fluid advection system (subseafloor TAIGA) can be categorized into four types, TAIGAs of sulfur, hydrogen, carbon (methane), and iron, according to the most dominant reducing substance, and the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria/archaea that are inextricably associated with respective types of TAIGAs which are strongly affected by their geological background such as surrounding host rocks and tectonic settings. Sub-seafloor ecosystems are sustained by hydrothermal circulation or TAIGA that carry chemical energy to the chemosynthetic microbes living in an extreme environment. The results of the project have been summarized comprehensively in 50 chapters, and this book provides an overall introduction and relevant topics on the mid-ocean ridge system of the Indian Ocean and on the arc-backarc systems of the Southern Mariana Trough and Okinawa Trough.46.3 Gamma Ray Attenuation by Sea Water Gamma rays are attenuated by materials with the following equation, I 1a4 I0 eAI¼x Ad46:1A where I is the gamma ray intensity, I0 gamma ray intensity at x 1a4 0, x the distance from the source, I¼ the attenuation coefficient. Actual gamma ... As results of these calibrating studies , it was shown that this Shinkai-type NaI spectrometer can be used for dosimetry of sea water quantitatively. ... 46.2 The temporal change of the water radioactivity during.
|Title||:||Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems|
|Author||:||Jun-ichiro Ishibashi, Kyoko Okino, Michinari Sunamura|
|Publisher||:||Springer - 2015-01-10|