With engaging new contributions from the major figures in the fields of the media and public opinion The Oxford Handbook of American Public Opinion and the Media is a key point of reference for anyone working in American politics today.... which makes it difficult to disentangle the causal effects of messages on the opinions and actions of the audience and vice versa. Problems of imprecise measurement and weak causal inference have proven intractable in observational research such as surveys. ... is profound, exaggerating the impact by as much as 600 percent (Vavreck 2007; Ansolabehere and Iyengar 1994; Price and Zaller 1993).
|Title||:||The Oxford Handbook of American Public Opinion and the Media|
|Author||:||Robert Y. Shapiro, Lawrence R. Jacobs|
|Publisher||:||OUP Oxford - 2013-05-23|